Alpha-Arbutin is derived from pure forms of Arbutin came from leaves of bearberry, cranberry, mulberry or blueberry shrubs, and also is present in most types of pears. It underwent biosynthesis, a process that makes it water-soluble and more efficient as a cosmetic ingredient. Its main purpose is to block skin color production or scientifically called â€˜epidermal melanin biosynthesisâ€™, leading to a faster and more efficient approach than what arbutin alone does. Medical studies say that when it comes to potency, Alpha Arbutin is a trusted and proven ingredient as it doesnâ€™t minimize liver spots, it also reduce the degree of skin tanning after UV exposure.
A by-product in the fermentation process of malting rice for use in the manufacturing of a Japanese rice wine, studies say that Kojic Acid is an unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations as it can turn brown and lose its efficacy upon exposure to sunlight or air. Although some research shows that is effective for inhibiting melanin production, some suggested that large doses of skin allergy and irritations as it contains carcinogenic properties.